Introduction to MIPS Processors

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The processor we will be considering in this tutorial is the MIPS processor. The premise is, however, that a RISC processor can be made much faster than a CISC processor because of its simpler design...

The processor we will consider in this instructional exercise is the MIPS processor. The MIPS processor, structured in 1984 by specialists at Stanford University, is a RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processor. Contrasted and their CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) partners, (for example, the Intel Pentium processors), RISC processors normally bolster less and a lot more straightforward guidelines.

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The reason is, nonetheless, that a RISC processor can be made a lot quicker than a CISC processor as a result of its more straightforward structure. Nowadays, it is commonly acknowledged that RISC processors are more effective than CISC processors; and even the main famous CISC processor that is still near (Intel Pentium) inside makes an interpretation of the CISC guidelines into RISC directions before they are executed \\[1\\].

RISC processors ordinarily have a heap store engineering. This implies there are two guidelines for getting to memory: a heap (l) guidance to stack information from memory and a store (s) guidance to compose information to memory. It likewise implies that none of different guidelines can get to memory legitimately. Along these lines, a guidance like "add this byte from memory to enlist 1" from a CISC guidance set would require two guidelines in a heap store engineering: "load this byte from memory into register 2" and "add register 2 to enroll 1".

CISC processors additionally offer various tending to modes. Consider the accompanying guidance from the Intel 80x86 guidance set (with streamlined register names):

include r1, \\[r2+r3*4+60\\]/i86 (not MIPS) model

This guidance stacks an incentive from memory and adds it to a register. The memory area is given in the middle of the square sections. As should be obvious, the Intel guidance set, as is commonplace for CISC structures, takes into consideration extremely confused articulations for address figurings or "tending to modes". The MIPS processor, then again, just considers one, rather straightforward, tending to mode: to determine a location, you can indicate a steady and a register. Along these lines, the above Intel guidance could be deciphered as:

slli r3, r3, 2/r3 := r3 2 (for example r3 := r3 * 4)

include r2, r2, r3/r2 := r2 + r3

l r4, 60(r2)/r4 := memory\\[60+r4\\]

include r1, r1, r4/r1 := r1 + r4

We need four directions rather than one, and an additional register (r4) to do what should be possible with one guidance in a CISC design. The inner hardware of the RISC processor is a lot more straightforward, be that as it may, and would thus be able to be made quick. How this is done, is the subject of this instructional exercise.

Essential Processor Architecture

The execution of a guidance in a processor can be separated into various stages. What number of stages there are, and the reason for each stage is distinctive for every processor plan. Models incorporates 2 phases (Instruction Fetch/Instruction Execute) and 3 phases (Instruction Fetch, Instruction Decode, Instruction Execute). The MIPS processor has 5 phases:

IF The Instruction Fetch stage gets the following guidance from memory utilizing the location in the PC (Program Counter) register and stores this guidance in the IR (Instruction Register)

ID The Instruction Decode stage disentangles the guidance in the IR, figures the following PC, and peruses any operands required from the register record.

EX The Execute stage "executes" the guidance. Truth be told, all ALU activities are done in this stage. (The ALU is the Arithmetic and Logic Unit and performs activities, for example, expansion, deduction, moves left and right, and so forth.)

MA The Memory Access stage plays out any memory get to required by the current guidance, So, for loads, it would stack an operand from memory. For stores, it would store an operand into memory. For every single other guidance, it would sit idle.

WB For directions that have an outcome (a goal register), the Write Back composes this outcome back to the register record. Note this incorporates almost all guidelines, aside from nops (a nop, no-operation or no-activity guidance essentially sits idle) and s (stores).

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